THE EFFECT OF FORGIVENESS THERAPY WITH DHIKR TO INCREASE SELF-ACCEPTANCE IN PEOPLE WITH HIV/AIDS AT SURAKARTA
Reza Mina Pahlewi
UIN Sunan Kalijaga, Indonesia
This research is a pre-experimental study with a one-group pre-test and post-test design with a follow-up research design. First of all, participants are subjected to measurement of the dependent variable and then given treatment for a certain period and then re-measurement of the dependent variable to see the effect of treatment on the dependent variable to be measured. The form of the research design can be seen below:
Y1: Measurement before treatment (pre-test) X: Treatment (forgiveness therapy)
Y2: Measurement after treatment (post-test)
Y3: Follow-up, measurement after being given a break
Self-acceptance scales were given to pre–test (before treatment), post-test (after treatment), and follow-up, namely after a one-week interval without being given treatment.
Research Participants The
Participants of this study were people with HIV/AIDS living in Yogyakarta with the following criteria: diagnosed or positive HIV/AIDS status stage 1-2; have self-acceptance in the low or medium category; are Muslim. Participants in this study were recruited from a PLWHA assistance agency in Yogyakarta. All participants had received informed consent and signed it voluntarily before conducting the study.
Research Instruments The
The measuring instrument for self-acceptance in this study is the form of a Likert scale (Azwar, 2003) which is used to obtain quantitative data. The Self-Acceptance Scale (SPD) in this study was adapted from the Self-Acceptance Scalecompiled by EL Philips and the Expressed Acceptance of Self Scale compiled by EM Berger which has been developed and applied in Indonesia by (Praptomojati & Subandi, 2020). The reliability coefficient alpha of the self-acceptance scale from (Praptomojati & Subandi, 2020) is 0.953 and the item discrimination coefficient moves from 0.493 to 0.838.
The SPD taken from Praptomojati's study before being used in this study was first re-adapted to fit the research topic. After rearranging and obtaining a professional judgment from two experts who understand the field of measuring instrument construction and the field of HIV/AIDS, then the SPD was given to the research participants (a total of 28 items). Qualitative data which is complementary data in this study were taken by interview and observation methods carried out at the pre-test and post-test stages, to strengthen the findings of the quantitative data analysis.
Implementation of the intervention carried out in this study was carried out in nine sessions according to the four phases of forgiveness therapy which included uncovering the anger; the phase of deciding to forgive (deciding to forgive); the phase of doing forgiveness (working on forgiveness); and the discovery and release from emotional prison. The following is a brief description of the phases of forgiveness therapy contained in nine sessions:
Session 1 is psychoeducation about HIV/AIDS and its relation to self-acceptance. Psychoeducation is carried out through lectures, discussion, and question-and-answer techniques. The goal is for participants to understand and gain knowledge related to HIV/AIDS and its relation to the accompanying psychosocial symptoms.
Session 2 is an introduction to emotions followed by how to express them adequately and adaptively. Session 3 is an assignment to fill out a worksheet by identifying the unpleasant experiences experienced and the feelings that accompany them, as well as the effectiveness of the alternatives that have been carried out.
Session 4 is in the form of psychoeducation regarding positive coping as a more positive alternative that can be done, one of which is done through forgiveness with dhikr. Techniques imagery. Session 5 was themed “Gaining New Perspectives”. The participants were guided to understand themselves/others/as well as the situation from a new, more positive point of view so that they could give a more positive view of the problems they were experiencing, thereby reducing their feelings of resentment and being able to find and feel social support from the surrounding environment.
Session 6 focused on building positive emotions and perspectives. Participants are guided to forgive through imagery by entering the sentence of dhikr tahmid. The goal is that the participants can decide to forgive the object of forgiveness by increasing more positive thoughts and feelings and by being grateful for the opportunities and goodness that have been given by Allah SWT. Session 7 is an evaluation of new feelings and thoughts after forgiving dhikr.
Session 8 is in the form of determining new life goals and being free from the confines of negative emotions, thinking about possible obstacles that will be faced, and determining positive coping strategies to overcome these obstacles.
The method to be used in quantitative analysis is parametric statistics. According to (Azwar, 2003), before testing the hypothesis, the assumption is first tested, namely the normality test and homogeneity test on the pre-test and post-test data obtained. If the data is normally distributed and has the same or homogeneous variance, then the data analysis to test the hypothesis will use the paired sample t-test. This test aims to determine the difference before and after the treatment. Hypothesis testing in this study was assisted by using a computer program SPSS (Statistical Product & Service Solution) 16.0 for windows. Meanwhile, the qualitative data in the study was analyzed in a simple descriptive manner to only strengthen the findings of the quantitative analysis.
Result and Discussion
Results The results of the measurement of scores and categories of pre-test, post-test, and follow-up of research subjects can be seen in table 1 below.
Score Measurement Results and Categories Pre-test and Post-test
Based on the pre-test and post-test data that have been obtained, hypothesis testing is then carried out using paired sample t-test analysis techniques, namely parametric test tests to compare two groups of data on the same subject. The results of the paired sample t-test will be explained in table 2 below
The results of the Paired Sample T-test
Pre-test Post-test Post-test Follo w up Pre-test Follow up
This study aims to determine the effect of forgiveness therapy (forgiveness therapy) with dhikr (tahmid) to increase self-acceptance in PLWHA. The results showed that forgiveness therapy with dhikr was effective in increasing self-acceptance in PLWHA.
Based on the results of the paired sample t-test analysis, it shows that at the pre-test and post-test, there is a very significant difference in the subject's self-acceptance after being given forgiveness therapy Sig (p) = 0.004 (p < 0.01) where the subject's self-acceptance after being given therapy forgiveness was higher (M = 97.83) than before giving forgiveness therapy (M = 85.50).
Meanwhile, the pre-test with follow-up showed that there was a significant difference in self-acceptance Sig (p) = 0.010 (p < 0.05) between before and the results of data analysis using paired sample t-test showed that there was a significant difference in self-acceptance. very significant before being given forgiveness therapy with dhikr and after being given forgiveness therapy with dhikr (p = 0.004); p < 0.01) where the level of self-acceptance of the subject after being given forgiveness therapy with dhikr is higher (M = 97.83) compared to before being given forgiveness therapy with dhikr (M = 85.50). These results are supported by qualitative data obtained from observations, interviews, and evaluations of each individual during the training. The changes felt include feeling more comfortable, relieved, peaceful, able to let go of negative events that have been experienced, being able to be more grateful, and able to take lessons from the unpleasant events experienced. This is indicated by the desire of all subjects to maintain their health condition with discipline in consuming drugs.
Self-acceptance scores at the pre-test and post-test increased in various ways. 3 participants have self-acceptance scores that fall into the high category, and 2 participants fall into the medium category. There is 1 participant (SW) who is still in the very low category, which is because he has not fully accepted his perceived physical changes as imperfect as before. The subject always blames his illness for causing candidiasis in his eyes although the subject's eye condition is caused by the use of expired eye drops. This is in line with Batman's opinion (PURWADI, 2020) which states that changes in physical conditions experienced by PLWHA hurt their psychological development such as feeling ashamed, loss of confidence, and self-esteem. Different things were obtained from the results of observations of the SW subject concerned during the training where the subject experienced mood changes which previously seemed more silent but at the second and third meetings, the subject became more cheerful than before. SW subjects also seemed to burst into tears when they were given forgiveness therapy with dhikr when compared to other participants. This is supported by the subject's self-acceptance score which increased in the post-test although it was still in the same category. Furthermore, SW subjects were accompanied individually to increase their self-acceptance.
Forgiveness therapy with dhikr is a combination of forgiveness therapy and includes dhikr Alhamdulillah by being grateful for every favor that has been given by Allah. The achievement of the success of forgiveness therapy with dhikr in increasing self-acceptance in PLWHA has supported several related theories and previous research.
(Harris et al., 2006) suggests that forgiveness interventions are effective for adults with various painful experiences due to the actions of others. for the participants, these experiences included rejection from family, and friends, being kicked out of the house, stigma, discrimination from the environment, and negative judgments from others regarding their physical changes after contracting HIV/AIDS.
(Walton, 2005) suggests that forgiveness is one way for a person to be able to accept and free negative emotions such as depression, anger, guilt, and shame due to injustice, and improve interpersonal relationships with various problem situations. In addition, forgiveness can also bring a person to new understandings, and acceptance so that the pain due to the events experienced is reduced or no longer felt. According to Philips and Berger (Sunardi, 2004), individuals who accept themselves are characterized by a belief in their ability to deal with problems, a valuable assumption of oneself as a human being and equal to others, no strange assumptions about oneself and no desire to be rejected by others, no shame on oneself, dare to take responsibility for one's behavior, objective in accepting praise or criticism, not blaming oneself for shortcomings or denying one's strengths.
The forgiveness therapy training in this study was carried out by incorporating an element of dhikr Alhamdulillah in it. This is so that participants can see the problem from a more positive side and be able to be grateful for all the blessings that Allah has given to them so far, including the opportunity to breathe. According to (Haryanto & Sila, 2022), dhikr that is carried out continuously with full solemnity will make the heart always close to Allah and bring a calm and peaceful impact. Research conducted describes that the elderly who are given dhikr therapy are more able to accept themselves as they are, do not reject themselves if they have shortcomings or weaknesses, have the belief that to love oneself does not have to be loved and appreciated by others, feel valuable so that one need not feel perfect.
The results showed that forgiveness therapy with dhikr can increase self-acceptance in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The data obtained showed that there was a very significant increase in self-acceptance scores after being given forgiveness therapy with dhikr compared to before being given forgiveness therapy with dhikr. Each participant felt the benefits of forgiveness therapy with dhikr, namely feeling more calm, peaceful, relieved, happy, more accepting of themselves with their current condition, wanting to help others to be more enthusiastic
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Reza Mina Pahlewi (2022)
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