Syntax Literate: Jurnal Ilmiah Indonesia p–ISSN: 2541-0849 e-ISSN: 2548-1398

Vol.7, No.12, Desember 2022

 

THE ROLE OF LEADERS IN ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON PERFORMANCE AMID THE COVID 19 PANDEMIC

 

Max Raja P. Sinaga, Jajang Gunawijaya

Department of Anthropology, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia

Email: maxsinaga16@gmail.com

 

Abstract

The role and challenges of leadership depend on how to understand the prevailing culture at BRI. In the traditional perspective, organizational culture is treated as an instrument or function that can be manipulated by leaders to help organizations adapt to the realities of the external environment. From a symbolic-interpretive perspective, organizational culture is seen as a social phenomenon. This study aims to uncover and analyze the values of the organizational culture and personal dimensions through the experiences of participants as research subjects related to the role of BRI leaders in developing organizational culture during the Covid-19 pandemic. The research method used is qualitative with an ethnographic approach. The problem to be answered can be obtained through observation and in-depth interviews with participants or research informants consisting of the leadership of the BRI KC Mabes TNI, Cilangkap, Jakarta Timur. The values of AKHLAK (Trust, Competent, Harmonious, Loyal, Adaptive, and Collaborative) are embodied in the company's operational activities. The role of the leader in interpreting and implementing the corporate culture at the branch level is well executed. The leadership capacity of BRI KC TNI Headquarters Cilangkap implementing a corporate culture during the Covid-19 pandemic can maintain and even increase the company's revenue or performance.

 

Keywords: leader role; organizational culture; covid-19 pandemic; ethnography

 

Introduction

The Covid-19 pandemic has caused global socioeconomic conditions to contract which hurts all organizations, especially companies, including the banking service industry (Fakhrunnas, 2022). The authorities of world countries are making extreme policies to stem the wider transmission of Covid-19 by limiting human mobility (Cohen, 2021). The Covid-19 pandemic poses enormous challenges for governments, communities, and companies around the world. Almost all sectors suffered large financial losses experiencing a very serious decline in revenue. Although the nature of banking products and services does not have to make people meet each other, efforts to prevent the possibility of contracting Covid-19 make management make policies that are guided by efforts to prevent transmission. In general, the banking industry's revenue has also decreased so the business of recovering lost income in the long term continues to be carried out (Crick & Crick, 2020). Restrictions on people's mobility have changed the business mechanism of banking services, given the new rules and regulations on hygiene and social distancing restrictions to allay concerns of customers being compromised when utilizing banking services. The severe pandemic situation and the end period are not yet known, requiring the company to implement certain strategies to carry out business recovery (Das dkk., 2021). Therefore, changes in the work culture of banking organizations are important in adapting to conditions like this.

PT. Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Bank BRI) is heading toward the new normal era during the Covid-19 Pandemic, preparing strategies to adapt. BRI prepares health protocols during the Covid-19 Pandemic. The first protocol includes workers and networks, where BRI implements flexible work, branch transformation, alternative co-working spaces, and the implementation of health protocols. Second, IT and digital by prioritizing system and network reliability as well as security so that people can easily and safely transact. Third, BRI's business protocol changes products, business processes, and operations to adapt to people's behavior, such as by presenting digital loans and digital deposits while still growing healthy through selective growth. Adapting to banking needs during the pandemic, BRI launched six online fintech products. The launch of these products is expected to get the best service without having to go to a branch office so that it can make it easier for customers to shop online from traditional market merchants to be able to continue to increase the income of market traders during the pandemic.

Disruption to the economy due to the Covid-19 Pandemic can encourage public panic about the banking system or what is known as bank panic.  In such situations, society massively withdraws its funds from banks on a large scale. The difficulty of customers withdrawing funds at the Bank that just happened yesterday can be one of the triggers that make the banking industry even more shaken due to the Covid-19 Pandemic. The Covid-19 pandemic can be a problem for banks because it produces problems in the real sector or the business world that have the potential to cause problems in the banking sector. This can happen because the banking sector is an intermediation institution or intermediary that supports the need for investment funds for the business world.

Travel bans and physical distancing restrictions have made people give up their intention to work. Many of them canceled business plans including utilizing banking service products, which in the end the industry had to tighten operating costs including reducing the number of workers and financial income. Streamlining labor and tightening spending are steps that many in the banking industry take. Banking practitioners are pursuing various strategies to maintain business survival during the crisis caused by the Covid-19 Pandemic. BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap East Jakarta as one of the banking business entities strives to continue to survive in marketing and even improve its products by changing or developing a new work culture or organizational culture.

The Covid-19 pandemic has created a state of stress and anxiety in workers. Not only technically dealing with the Covid-19 virus, but also policies that can affect the lives of workers. Various policies that are responsive due to the wide spread of the virus, make some people feel frustrated and stressed because their burdens and responsibilities as workers increase. Workers must think hard about how to survive in these difficult conditions. Such a rapid and sudden change in organizational culture requires a strong leadership role. It's just that, the leader of the BRI Branch of the Indonesian Army Headquarters Cilangkap East Jakarta has not been able to put himself into building this strong culture so it cannot improve the company's performance. (Schein, 1990) states that organizational culture consists of three levels including artifacts, espoused beliefs and values, and underlying assumptions. Artifacts are things that humans can see, hear, and perceive about a subject, thing, or event.  Artifacts can be products, services, or even human behavior. This can be seen in the following image:

 

Diagram

Description automatically generated

Schein Organizational Culture Model Image

Source: Schein (E. Schein, 2004a)

 

(Schein, stated that in every organizational culture there are three types of organizational subcultures, including operator culture, engineer culture, and executive culture. Operator culture is a sub-culture of employees on the front line who oversee producing and presenting the products that the company will produce. Engineer culture is a sub-culture that designs processes to produce products. Executive culture is responsible for the strategy it carries out to maximize the company's profits.

The research is written by (Utomo, 2011) which looks at the anthropological theory by Schein and has the aim of describing the form and application of corporate culture where corporate culture is a set of assumptions: philosophy, values, norms, beliefs, ideas, myths, and integrated work to direct organizational behavior. Corporate culture can be analyzed from artifacts, beliefs, values, basic assumptions, and social responsibility. So that the solution that can be given is that external adaptation and internal integration should be understood by each employee because if the company cannot implement them properly it cannot solve a problem. Failure in employee management will also cause the company to regress.

(Septiyanto's research, 2014) analyzing organizational culture using (Schein, 2010) has the conclusion that corporate culture can be used as a code of conduct to overcome problems. Corporate culture can be seen from values, artifacts, and assumptions. The components of corporate culture can be seen through character building, capacitive building, and performance building. The application of corporate culture is applied through recruitment, morning reports, and communication networks. Meanwhile, the socialization of corporate culture is contained in stories, rituals, material symbols, and language. 

(Kushindarwito, 2016) looked at organizational culture using the theory of Langton & Robbins and concluded that the work culture works well in five aspects, namely honesty, perseverance, creativity, discipline, and responsibility, therefore, to continue to improve work culture, it is necessary to change behavior by organizational employees and training on behavior change communication, and an exemplary example of a leader. So that the solution that is considered appropriate by researchers is to continue to improve the work culture, it requires behavior change by organizational employees and training on behavior change communication and exemplary examples from a leader.

The Covid-19 pandemic that has hit the world today has caused anxiety, worry, and panic to the entire community. Community elements are constrained to carry out all their activities due to the Covid-19 Pandemic. The result of compensation affects work stress; there is an influence of the work environment on work stress. The implication is that management must continue to provide decent compensation for employees and create a work environment to start adopting technology to reduce work stress on employees during the Covid-19 Pandemic (Anita dkk., 2021).

The Covid-19 Pandemic condition causes some people to feel excessive worry or fear and unreasonable thinking. It is not uncommon for them to have suspicions and prejudices about people who have signs of suffering from Covid-19. This has made people increasingly try to find news about Covid-19, and cannot sort out accurate news, causing anxiety. Such circumstances make a person have trouble sleeping, headaches, and other physical disorders. This is the so-called stress condition. During the Covid pandemic, stress conditions can be classified into three scopes: academic stress commonly experienced by students/ students, work stress, and stress in the family. The scope of the latter is very potential to be experienced by housewives, because of the WFH (Work from Home) policy that makes housewives suddenly must accompany their daughter's son to study at home with all his problems. The research (Kurniawansyah dkk., 2020) uses qualitative research methods with descriptive data analysis sourced from various online media. Only people who can adjust and manage well the existing conditions will avoid stress, and even be able to make stress into eustress (positive stress) because they become creative and productive.

Research by (Qisty et al., 2021) states that changes in the order of life due to the  Covid-19 pandemic affect the course of the organization. In carrying out its duties to facilitate lifelong learning, one of which is by providing library and archival services, entering a new era of habits makes some things in the organization change. Based on the results of observations regarding organizational culture, the most changes occurred in the artifact elements, namely in the layout of buildings, the services provided to the community, as well as habits and ways of communicating.

Research conducted by (Setiawati et al., 2022) states that there is a climate of organizational communication, and the highest dimension is trust. Other dimensions of organizational communication climate such as shared decision-making, honesty, openness in downward communication, listening in upward communication, and attention to one's own performance goals have no significant influence on performance productivity. Dimensions of the organizational communication climate that have not had a significant effect on performance products such as attention to common goals, honesty, openness in downward communication, listening in upward communication, and attention to high performance need to be considered by agencies so that performance is more optimal. The dimension of trust in the organizational communication climate has a high enough influence that should be maintained to achieve more optimal performance.

Research conducted by (Marina, 2022) states that the success of leadership is certainly inseparable from guaranteeing information disclosure to subordinates, appreciating the performance of their subordinates, coordinating, and conducting education to the community in preventing the spread of Covid-19. All dimensions of leadership which includes also a straightforward speaking style, the use of easy-to-understand language, mastery of the topic of conversation, and the style of behaving as a leader have produced a condition where the leadership process, especially in emergency conditions such as the spread of Covid-19,  has succeeded in influencing the entire village apparatus so that the goals to be achieved by village organizations can be achieved with good coordination among parties who  Authorized.

The studies outlined are related to this research, which is to analyze the role of leadership in improving company performance from the cultural perspective of the Schein model. However, this research is slightly different from previous studies on leadership roles associated with internalization and interpretation of corporate culture using the Schein model in maintaining and improving company performance during the Covid-19 Pandemic using qualitative analysis through an ethnographic approach.

This research uses qualitative methods with an ethnographic approach. Data collection will be carried out from May 2022 to August 2022. The subject of this study was the leaders and employees of the Bank BRI Branch Office of the TNI Cilangkap Headquarters. Researchers obtained informants with purposive sampling techniques which means choosing participants who are considered to have adequate knowledge related to the object under study. Data collection techniques in this study used observation, in-depth interviews, documentation, and audio. Researchers conducted research activities at BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap East Jakarta for approximately three months by conducting scheduled visits. The data analysis techniques used include data description, data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. The technique of checking the validity of data using data triangulation. The names of key informants and informants in this study were disguised to maintain the personal confidentiality of the participants.

 

Research Methods

This research was conducted using a qualitative type of method with an ethnographic approach. With the purpose of the research is to obtain answers from research activities carried out with observation techniques and in-depth interviews with research participants or informants consisting of leaders of the BRI Branch of the Indonesian Army Headquarters Cilangkap East Jakarta.

 

Results and Discussion

1.    The Culture of Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap

According to (Schein, 2010) organizational culture is defined as a dynamic phenomenon throughout time and place, which is continuously carried out and created through interaction with other parties and is shaped by the behavior of the leadership and which consists of structures, routines, rules and norms that guide and limit behavior. A practical way to define organizational culture is in the environment in which we work, in this environment behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, skills, views, and human relations support each other and work together to create a value system that prevails in society. Culture reflects an order of values, which governs the life of a particular society. But, between one group of people and another, the culture can be different, because culture has a lot to do with the life experience of that tribe and human life related to geography, religion, state rules, and so on. High culture can produce high norms of life. Value is something invisible, so it is not easy to formulate into one satisfactory definition.

Anthropologically, (Kluckhohn, 1962) posits value as a conception that can explicitly distinguish individuals or groups, because it characterizes both individuals and groups. Philosophically, (Spranger, 1928) equates value with attention to the life that is closely related to culture because culture is seen as a value system, culture is a collection of values arranged according to a certain structure. The value of life is one of the determinants of personality because it is something that becomes a goal or ideal that the individual seeks to realize, live, and support. A person's life attitude is determined by the dominant value of life, that is, the value of life that the individual considers to be the highest value or the value of life that is the most valuable field  (Spranger, 1928).

According to (Schein, 2004), organizational culture has three levels. The first tier, the level of behavior and artifacts, is the outermost and visible element of organizational culture. Reflects the basic values and assumptions adopted by the organization in the form of behavior and objects around it, such as how to dress, building design, ceremonies, language, stories, myths, and symbols. The second level, beliefs, values, and attitudes are the elements of organizational culture that underlie behavior. Although these elements are not visible, they affect the behavior of members. Values are concerned with morals and ethics to determine what should be done, while beliefs have more to do with what a person thinks is right or wrong. The third level, basic assumptions are the deepest part of organizational culture that underlies the values, attitudes, and beliefs of the members of the organization. Organizational culture is created, maintained, and changed by people in the organization. Organizational culture is also created and maintained by the leadership of the organization. The founders and leaders of the organization at the executive level are the main source of the derivation of the ideology, core values, and specific values of the organization.  Organizational values describe selected behaviors or goals. Organizational norms reflect those behaviors that others accept and are considered an acceptable way to achieve goals. The leader also sets parameters for communication channels and formal rules of interaction for the organization. Values and norms are spread throughout the members of the organization, becoming part of a permanent organizational culture.

The culture of Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap consists of AKHLAK. AKHLAK itself is an acronym for Amanah, Kompeten, Harmoni, Loyal, Adaptif, and Kolaboratif. The moral values above certainly affect the behavior and performance of employees of Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap, although it is a new core value because existing values are used as guidelines in acting to carry out a company activity. These values also include moral values at Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap. Material value, that is, everything that is useful for human physical life, or the physical material needs of man. This value is proven by the existence of competent values, namely by continuously improving the ability/competence so that it is always up to date, and always reliable by providing the best performance, to produce satisfactory performance and achievements, that it will certainly get an award both material and non-material. Second, the vital value is everything useful for humans to be able to hold activities or activities. As well as loyal values where employees must be dedicated and prioritize the interests of the country or company above personal interests by continuing to show a strong commitment to achieve goals and be willing to contribute more which makes this value a guide for activities in the company activities that are directly related to partners. And the adaptive value is to continue to innovate in the face of change so that this value becomes a guide in employee activities when facing unexpected situations. Last is the spiritual value, that is, everything that is useful to the spiritual man. Not only that, but the spiritual value is also proven by the harmonious value at Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap, namely having a good relationship between fellow employees, partners, and superiors. This is certainly very important for employee behavior that illustrates the existence of Islamic values that are applied so that it will have an impact on employee psychology, performance, and company image.

Work culture is a factor that affects the performance of employees in the agency. If the work culture that exists in that agency is not good, it affects the performance of other employees in that agency (Rusdi, 2019). Corporate culture is closely related to employee empowerment. The stronger the company culture, the greater the encouragement of employees to move forward with the company. Based on this, the implementation and development of corporate culture are very necessary in order o to build an effective and efficient company by the vision and mission to be achieved by the company (Darmawan et al., 2020).  The description of the culture of Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap has several values abbreviated as AKHLAK (Amanah, Kompeten, Harmoni, Loyal, Adaptif, and Kolaboratif) namely the behavior of a person who is driven by something fundamentally desire to do an act.

The description of these values has certainly been explained on the previous page which discusses the existing value items. The values in BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap initially were trust culture, namely Trust, Responsive, Superior, Healthy, and Leading, then with the holding of BUMN by the Ministry of SOEs, the unification of BUMN core values, namely AKHLAK, which is an acronym for Amanah, Kompeten, Harmonies, Loyal, Adaptive and Collaborative was carried out.

For employees of Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap, the values of corporate culture mentioned above are quite well understood and understood by each of their employees, because these values can motivate and fortify employees in terms of performance and behavior to be by the values of the existing corporate culture. Before these values are understood by all employees, of course, it is necessary to have a method of applying company culture, one of which is socialization, where employees learn the ins and outs of the company and how they must interact and communicate between fellow employees to carry out all company activities. In addition, company leaders must also be able to carry out cultural socialization activities for their employees, so that the socialization process has a positive impact on the productivity, commitment, and turnover of these employees. In the end, the implementation of corporate culture will support and encourage employees to achieve the company's desired goals.

2.    Leadership of Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap

(Schein, 1992) states that leaders have a great influence on the success of organizations in facing emerging challenges. The demand for the quality and performance of leadership in the administration of government comes to the fore and continues to increase has become a patron of a leader and a potential leader in bringing about change in the organization, as well as motivating its members to achieve organizational goals. Leadership is the basis for human resource management, which is expected not only in the operational aspect, namely in the formation of the quality of work life but also in the strategic aspects that underlie the formation of these working life conditions.

Leadership has a big role to play in maximizing the organization to work towards achieving the expected goals. A smart leader is not a guarantee to lead an effective and efficient organization, because a leader in addition to having the knowledge and skills to lead is also required to behave as a role model for his subordinates. Organizations that can last more than a hundred years and show outstanding achievements are those led by leaders who teach by example.

The implementation of risk management implemented by BRI includes a focus on credit quality which will grow selectively by looking at business opportunities and target markets, increasing data awareness, and increasing risk culture. This is part of BRI's risk control measures to maintain sustainability. BRI has the adequacy of integrated risk management and risk management policies that continue to be improved, risk appetite and risk tolerance are measurable, always prioritize efforts to mitigate risks through active and proactive supervision, as well as strengthening the second line whose framework continues to be refined. 

3.    Performance of Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap in Facing COVID-19

The Covid-19 pandemic has made the banking industry have to adapt to running its business to survive. This is also what BRI experiences in facing uncertainty both domestically and globally. In the face of this, BRI has taken a policy of continuing to record positive profits by providing credit restructuring to customers. This credit restructuring effort is also accompanied by reserves so it is estimated that annual net profit will grow negatively. Even so, this step makes investors believe BRI can survive amid a pandemic. Because, as a bank with the majority of MSME business customers, BRI is wavering because its customers are the most affected. This effort to save yourself must also be accompanied by adaptation in terms of business strategy. Customers who get grants from the Productive Presidential Assistance program are targeted by BRI. When the business gets a market and needs financing, BRI can provide soft loans that are also guaranteed by the government.

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought about major changes in people's social and economic lives. In such a situation, banking capital is no longer sufficient to cover the risks. Thirteen years later, in 2008 came a crisis triggered by the failure of corporations in America or so-called subprime mortgages. In the 2008 crisis, the most pronounced impacts were exchange rates, inflation, and interest rates. The corporate segment at that time was most quickly affected because it was exposed to exchange rates, interest rates, and inflation. In conditions like this, BRI encourages the digital segment which is now the mainstay of people who are experiencing social restrictions.

BRI has a variety of integrated banking services so that people are still able to transact safely and comfortably amid current conditions. BRImo is an application that has mobile banking and internet banking functions into one application with a more complete and attractive transaction menu. The app features transfers, various payments, electronic money top-ups (BRIZZI), account mutation checks, and many other banking services. Through this application, customers do not need to come to the bank office if they want to open a new account. Through the Ceria product launched in 2019, BRI became the first bank in Indonesia to have a digital loan product. This application is fully digital, with a digital verification system, digital scoring, to digital signature, so that people are facilitated when applying for a personal loan simply through a smartphone and do not need to come to the BRI office. Meanwhile, for penetration into rural areas, BRI strengthens CASA retail and payments and strengthens micro-CASA through micropayments. One of the central points is BRILink agents, with 422 thousand agents spread throughout Indonesia including those carried out by Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap East Jakarta.

BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap has a very high tendency towards the characteristics of result orientation in the company's organizational culture. This result orientation refers to the very high tolerance caused by the family culture brought by the organization from the beginning of the company's establishment. The author sees that the basic assumption owned by BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap is the basic assumption of kinship, which is identical to groupism (E. Schein, 1992). This assumption makes the company comfortable and reluctant to carry out cultural development. The orientation of employees does not lie in salary but rather refers to the basic assumptions of groupism. This assumption then creates a system with a high-yield orientation, making employees look fully oriented toward salary. Basic assumptions and cultural elements in the company, the author concludes that the company adheres to a type of clan culture. Nonetheless, the company has not instilled the value of development which should be one of the value drivers of clan culture. BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap also adheres to one of the values of market culture, namely result orientation. Given that the family values instilled by the leadership cover every weakness of the system, BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap must take advantage of this to improve the system. When there is a change of leadership, the company system will not run well, because it is certainly not easy to replace the figure of someone who is considered family. Therefore, leaders must prepare BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap with a good system, so that when there is a change of leadership, the company is ready to face emergency conditions.

 

Conclusion

The impact of the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic is deeply felt by the wider community, including business actors in Indonesia. The efforts of WHO and the government in implementing social distancing changed the culture of the community which then harmed the business continuity of each company, including Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap East Jakarta. Amid the uncertainty of the end of the Covid-19 Pandemic, the management of Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap East Jakarta, namely temporarily dismissing employees without a clear limit when they are rehired, limiting the use of bank facilities to suppress ordinary operations, efficient bank expenses, selling products online to acquaintances and users of bank products, enforcing service price cuts within the tolerance limits that have been considered bank management. The Covid-19 pandemic has made the management of Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap East Jakarta make operational cost savings by reducing or eliminating budget posts that under normal conditions have been allocated. In addition, bank management also streamlines the number of workers although not in the form of layoffs but rather a reduction in the number of work shifts.  The prevailing values in BRI are AKHLAK (Amanah, Kompeten, Harmoni, Loyal, Adaptif, and Kolaboratif). The implementation of organizational cultural values interpreted by branch leaders to employees of Bank BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap is by socialization carried out from the beginning of the selection of prospective employees until the employee is already working, displays are made to records so that employees always remember and motivate themselves to continue to apply the AKHLAK culture. The role of the leader in interpreting and implementing the company culture in the branch can be carried out properly. The leadership capacity of BRI KC Mabes TNI Cilangkap to implement a corporate culture amid the Covid-19 Pandemic can maintain and even increase company revenue or performance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Copyright holder:

Max Raja P. Sinaga, Jajang Gunawijaya (2022)

 

First publication right:

Syntax Literate: Jurnal Ilmiah Indonesia

 

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