Syntax Literate: Jurnal Ilmiah Indonesia p–ISSN: 2541-0849 e-ISSN: 2548-1398

Vol. 7, No. 7, Juli 2022

 

DEFENSE PUBLIC POLICY REGARDING HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONTEXT OF MILITARY AFFAIRS REVOLUTION

 

Lukman Yudho Prakoso

Dosen Universitas Pertahanan RI Bogor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia

Email: lukman.prakoso@idu.ac.id

 

Abstract

The Man behind the gun, the defense of the country is a very important field to be realized to be strong, but many obstacles to achieving the desired defense goals, from various obstacles that are a priority is to provide quality human resources. In the midst of such a large globalization and as a democracy, public policy in the field of government on the management of civilian and military human resources is equally important in realizing human resources that can produce defense technologies that have a deterrence effect. Changes in defense technology are also related to the revolution in military affairs (RMA) which continues to move forward and affect the interaction of international relations. Taking into account the dynamics of international politics, RMA and human resources that exist today, the conceptual framework used in this paper cannot be separated from these aspects by sticking to the history and ideology of the Pancasila state. This is intended to realize reliable human resources without losing their identity to achieve Indonesia's national interests. In the face of change, the role of education is needed as an institution that continues to keep up with changes in actual and factual. In addition, research and development are also carried out by educational institutions in realizing reliable human resources. Similarly, in terms of defense, Indonesia already has an Indonesian Defense University related to defense topics. Cooperation with other educational institutions will automatically be carried out through each individual who has, is and will conduct research related to defense. The role of the Indonesian Defense University will be increasingly important in the future by building cooperation with educational institutions, research institutions, and so on in the civilian and military environments.

 

Keywords: International Relations, Revolution In Military Affairs, Human Resources, Cooperation, Research



Introduction

Mastery of technology is inseparable from the role of formal and non-formal educational institutions in producing human resources. Educational institutions still need to be developed to produce human resources who has expertise in specialized areas related to defense and security technology. The ability of human resources in making technological products, including mastery of military technology has stepped on global marketing. The ability to create military technology product platforms that are not based on electronic control is mostly tested and operational. human resources existing ones already have expertise in the operation and maintenance of equipment, and human resources r&d institutions already have the ability in the design, prototyping and testing of several equipment. Nevertheless, there is still limited development of capabilities. human resources due to the lack of opportunities provided, 2 demands even greater opportunities in the future. Advances in science and technology related to technological progress militer.[1] Namun demikian, Sayidiman menyatakan bahwa selain kemajuan teknologi, tentunya bisa berupa permasalahan politik, social and economic. Although, Sayidiman further stated that not everything depends on the sophistication of military technology in defending the interests of a country as happened in the Vietnam War, the Afghan War, and so on. [2]

The development of the defense industry requires visionary management through increased creativity, innovation, relying on Human Resources that have idealism and intellectualism, and building high competitiveness. Acceleration of self-reliance (self-ability, freedom, and independence) of the National Defense Industry, requires synergistic cooperation between technology users, research and development institutions, universities, and industry. [3] Defense industry policy is implemented through defense industry development programs as well as defense research and development programs that include defense and security concepts; defense industry cooperation between universities and research and development institutions; and improvement of the quality of human resources and the field of engineering design. The implementation of research and development and engineering consists of elements: research and development institutions; college; research and development institutions, both national government and private institutions in the field of defense and security; Users; and the main tool industry. The research and development and engineering are coordinated by KKIP in synergy with the production and procurement activities of Defense and Security Equipment Equipment. [4]

In the framework of research and development and engineering, the government built special facilities supporting the Defense Industry; provide special education and training program facilities to improve the quality of human resources of the Defense Industry; and/or provide a budget for research and engineering. In addition to paying attention to domestic policies, human resources who will improve technology certainly pay attention to other factors, namely international relations both in the region (regional) and globally. With regard to defense technology, it is also necessary to know about the revolution in military affairs (Revolutions in Military Affairs / RMA). So complex and interrelated between the efforts that must be done, human resource management is needed  to realize  idealistic, creative, innovative and intelligent Human Resources so that the continuity of indonesia's defense technology development is in line with the dynamics of international relations and RMA. 5] Facing the dynamics and global free competition, the organization's dependence on human resource management that is increasingly high-quality will be even greater. Without prejudice to the importance of the attention that should still be paid to the management of other organizational sources, there is no denying that primary attention should be paid to human resource management. [6]

Kenneth Waltz's Conceptual Framework divides three levels in international political analysis, namely the international system, the state and the individual.6 Without intending to debate about the level of analysis, the author invites to see about the international system which Waltz thinks is a system that is outside the country. In interacting to achieve its national interests, the state or society can conduct international relations. [7] The groups covered in international relations according to Quincy Wright include nations, states, governments, peoples, regions, international organizations, industrial organizations, cultural organizations, and religious organizations. [8] Thus there is also a regional view/regionalism with all its international political dynamics. [9] States conduct foreign policy as an offshoot of international politics [10] and do so in achieving their national interests and ways of achieving them. [11] In the Indonesian context, foreign policy is freely active. In the midst of global competition in the international system, where each country achieves national interests in ways governed by its foreign policy, advances in military technology are part of international relations itself. [12]

The end of the Cold War led to new competitions that were no longer solely military and political aspects (high politics), but had led to economic competition, democratic ideas, human security, and so on. Globalization by bringing the issues of democracy, human rights and the environment is increasingly strongly affecting countries previously led by authoritarian regimes. [13] The liberal idea of promoting democracy departed from Immanuel Kant's view in Perpetual Peace,[14] followed by Tocqueville, Woodrow Wilson and on freedom, equality, and welfare demanded that individual countries that had not yet run a democracy to immediately conform to the idea. [15] In Indonesia implement democracy by sticking to the state foundation of Pancasila. Democracy carried by the west with civil supremacy resulted in a major change in the dynamics of Indonesian domestic politics. This is also related to the foreign policy that Indonesia conducts with other countries. Military issues that no longer dominate, but nevertheless realized that military technological advances remained deprlkan in strengthening the country's defense. International relations today are no longer dominated by realist perspectives, but economic and trade, energy, environmental issues change the views of state and non-state actors actually play a big role in state relations. The cooperation built by foreign relations actors is also related to technological advances marketed and disseminated by developed countries to Indonesia.

The development of military technology has realized market segmentation in the expansion of each country's products and manufacturers of these technologies. Cooperation is wider with all its consequences in international relations. Thus, territorial boundaries between countries are increasingly subtle (bordered but borderless). The classic definition of national borders that in the Montevideo Convention of 1933 has faded due to the emergence of TNC (Trans National Corporation), MNC (Multi National Corporation) and crime that along with the growth is like a coin with two sides that cannot be separated from each other. Emerging crime is also a national trans crime with a lower scale (low intensity).

The emergence of war by proxy is an effect of transnational dynamics themselves. In the face of such sporadic and disorganized opponent challenges, technological progress becomes absolute. The dynamic international dynamics of adulthood-by SBY referred to as dynamic equilibrium (2003) make the attitude of alert higher in the face of these developments in order to maintain Indonesia's national interests as stated in the opening of the 1945 Constitution. As a result, military interests are no longer in the context of the cold war, it makes countries remain focused on strengthening their military technology through revolutions in military affairs, both in the field of technology itself, organizational changes and doctrines in determining their bargaining positions and diplomatic interests.

 

Research Methods

In this study, the type of research used is the literature research method. The use of this approach is tailored to the main objectives of research, namely describing and analyzing the importance of improving human resources defense to face technological advances. The literature method is a type of qualitative research method whose location and place of research is carried out in libraries, documents, archives, and the like. In nyoman kutha ratna expression, the literature method is a research method whose data collection is carried out through storage places for research results, namely libraries. [16]

 

Results And Discussions

Teknologi Militer: Pendekatan RMA (Revolutions in Military Affairs)

Industrial capacity related to the military will be more effective if a country, in addition to having natural resources that can support its industry also has the ability to manage so that it can be used for military and civilian interests in achieving national interests. Morgenthau cited the natural wealth of uranium in congo which is a Belgian colony has little influence on Belgium for the benefit of its military industry as a suppressive effect during the Cold War. Conversely, for Czechoslovakia and the United States, the wealth of uranium has a great effect on its defense interests. The U.S. has human and industrial resources that can manage its natural wealth for its national interests in the face of bipolarity competition at the time. The development of RMA, which continues to this day, initially began with the Soviet Union in the Cold War era with a heavy point on its technology. [1 7] But further expanding so much that most assume that RMA is not only related to technology but also the capabilities and military effectiveness of a country.

This arises due to the benefits and influence of technological developments on system changes, changes in operational methods and military organizations. Thus RMA will not be able to escape the complexity of tactical, social, political, organizational, and new conceptions in the face of threats. [18] As a consequence, it is necessary to make a conception of military power in order to achieve the political interests of the country with the ability of the state to recognize (recognize), anticipate, explore (exploit) and ensure the continuity (sustain) comprehensively of military innovation. Changes in strategic and operational conditions faced by the military are increasingly complex such as hybrid warfare, unconventional threats (terrorism, insurgence, and asymmetric warfare, so in dealing with it requires the role of other components. In addition, according to Bitzinger, other influencing factors are geographical and cultural conditions that have implications for geopolitical insecurity, regional competition, and uncertainty arising from the various complexities of conflicts and threats; economic growth making it possible to purchase the latest weapons and carry out military modernization; and globalization, consolidation and competition of the global arms market defense industry. [1 9] Thus the dynamics of international relations are influential in carrying out a revolution in military affairs, where the aspects that are constantly being updated are technologies, doctrines and organizations that will have an impact on military capability and effectiveness on the dynamics of international relations and domestic conditions.

 

Public Policy of Improving Human Resources

The most important asset that an institution has is human resources. Activities carried out by humans in an organization are interdependent activities. [20] Even according to Siagian that various institutions although do not have resources and wealth in the form of money, but if they have human resources who are educated, skilled, disciplined, diligent, willing to work hard, have a work culture, faithfully achieve enormous progress for the institution and its person is wide open. [2 1] In addition, according to Simamora, some of the human resource problems that make the company fail include: poor quality of employees, negative attitudes and mindsets of employees who have been firmly rooted in the company, high turnover of employees who cost a lot and the switch of important employees to competing companies, as well as other factors including poor incentive guarantee programs for employees. [2 2] Thus, the performance and competence of individuals will also affect the performance and competence of the organization. Boulter, Dalziel and Hill define competence as a basic characteristic of a person that allows them to bring out superior performance in their work. [2 3] Competence is a deep and inherent part of personality in a person with predictable behavior in various occupational circumstances and tasks.

Predictions of who performs well and less well can be measured from the criteria or standards used by Boulter et.al called competency levels, namely Skill, Knowledge, Self-concept, Self Image, Trait, and Motive. [24] According to Armstrong and Brown performance assessments are based on understanding the knowledge, skills, expertise and behavior needed to do a good job and a broader analysis of individual attributes and behaviors where attributes consist of knowledge, skills and expertise. [2 5] According to Mc. Clelland in Cira and Benjamin by evaluating the competencies that a person has, it can be predicted the person's performance. [2 6]

Human resources are reliable potential personnel in the implementation of the Defense Industry consisting of elements of expertise, expertise, competence and organization, as well as intellectual property and information. Every element of human resources must be improved useability and useful value continuously in accordance with the standards, requirements, and certification of expertise and professional code of ethics. Government, Users, and The Defense Industry prepare the human resources necessary to master defense and security technologies loaded with high-tech and applied sciences of the Defense Industry. The high technology and applied sciences of the Defense Industry are those that have been mastered from the Defense Industry process and developed at national universities. Human resource preparation includes recruitment, education, training, internships, and rewards.

Thus, cooperation between all institutional elements of science and technology is needed in the development of information networks, defense and security sciences, and Defense Industry technology. The three factors above are international relations, revolution in military affairs and increased human resources, of course, meet in a forum called research. Through research will be found theoretical benefits and practical benefits that can be used as one of the many inputs needed by decision makers, especially with regard to the revolution to be carried out in military affairs.

 

Conclusion

The role of public policy in the field of simplification on defense resources is very important to always be improved in realizing the country's defense goals. Influenced by the development of the global strategic environment that impacts the technological needs of military equipment in the face of ever-changing threats. Various limitations, especially the budget, require each country to think about effective and efficient measures and strengthen its defense, but the priority must be focused on its human resources. Defense affairs cannot be carried out only by one state entity, including in preparing human resources, there must be good integration between entities to be able to achieve optimal results.

 


 

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